American National Security

Required and Optional Reading Materials

There are both required and optional reading listed below. The class schedule specifies which of the following material is required reading and specifies the date the reading assignment is due. Questions are drawn exclusively from required reading. Much of the optional material is here those of you pursuing a thesis topic in the area in this area.

Required Text

Assigned reading is from the following book available to students free of charge online. Reading assignments in the class schedule include the author’s last name and a chapter number, e.g., Worley 3 and Snow 6.

Orchestrating the Instruments of National Power: A Case for 21st Century National Security Reform, D. Robert Worley (expected publication 2009).

Optional Text

A second book—National Security for a New Era—is entirely optional. The author, Donald Snow, has been around a long time, is mainstream, and is very credible. I offer his book so that you’re not captive to my work.

National Security for a New Era: Globalization and Geopolitics after Iraq, 3rd ed. Donald M. Snow. New York: Pearson Longman, 2008.

Block I: Foundational Concepts and Principles

The Treaty of Westphalia (1648).

David Hume’s Of Balance of Power (1777).

The U.S. Constitution (1787).

Immanuel Kant’s Perpetual Peace (1795).

Worley 1, Worley 2

Snow 1-14, Snow 3, Snow 4, Snow 6.

Block II: National Security Strategy

Kennan’s Long Telegram.

Kennan’s X article.

“Competing Visions for U.S. Grand Strategy,” Barry R. Posen and Andrew L. Ross, International Security, vol. 21, no. 3 (Winter 1996-1997), 5-53.

“Campaign 2000: Promoting the National Interest.” Condoleezza Rice. Foreign Affairs, vol. 79, no. 1 (January/February 2000), 45-62.

Democratization and the Danger of War.” Edward D. Mansfield and Jack Snyder. International Security, vol. 20, no. 1 (Summer 1995), 5-38.

Bush I NSS 1991.

Clinton NSS 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999.

Clinton Doctrine.” An article about Clinton’s use of force (employment policy)

Bush II NSS 2002, 2006.

Worley II, Worley 3, Worley 4.

Snow 5, Snow 7.

Block III: Instruments and Actors

Department of Defense (DoD)

Department of State (DoS)

Defense is from Mars, State is from Venus.

Department of Justice (DoJ)

Department of the Treasury (DoT)

US Agency for International Development (USAID)

US Information Agency (USIA), DoS Public Diplomacy

Intelligence Community (IC)

House of Representatives


Block IV: Orchestrating the Instruments

“The Formulation of United States Policy Relating to the National Security,” Soures, American Political Science Review (June 1949).

“The National Security Council as a Device for Interdepartmental Coordination: An Interpretation and Appraisal,” Paul Y. Hammond, American Political Science Review (December 1960), 899-910.

“Effective National Security Advising: Recovering the Eisenhower Legacy,” Fred I. Greenstein and Richard H. Immerman, Political Science Quarterly (Autumn 2000), 333-345.

“Effective National Security Advising: A Dubious Precedent,” Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., Political Science Quarterly (Autumn 2000), 347-351.

“The NSC’s Midlife Crisis,” Zbigniew Brzezinski, Foreign Policy (Winter 1987-1988), 80-99.

Official National Security Council organization policy statements:

§  LBJ NSAM-132. [not yet found]

§  Nixon 1969 NSDM-2.

§  Carter 1977 NSC-2.

§  Reagan 1982 NSDD-2.

§  Reagan 1987 NSDD-266.

§  Reagan 1987 NSDD-276.

§  Bush 1989 NSD-2.

§  Clinton 1993 PDD-2.

§  Bush 2001 NSPD-1.

§  Bush 2001 NSPD-1a.

§  Obama 2009 PDD-1.

§  Obama 2009 NSC memo 21.

Organizing for “counterinsurgency”

§  Eisenhower’s Overseas Internal Security Program [not yet found]

§  JFK’s Overseas Internal Defense Policy 1962,

§  The releasing NSC document, NSAM-182,

§  DoS Summary of OIDP,

§  Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) Summary of OIDP.

Block V: Practical Application

No assigned readings in Block V.

Block VI: Reform for the 21st Century

§  Hart-Rudman Commission aka National Security Study Group

§  9/11 Commission (585 pp), Executive Summary (31 pp)

§  Commission on the National Guard and Reserve (448 pp), Executive Summary (95 pp)

§  Project on National Security Reform (742 pp), Executive Summary (33 pp)

§  Proposal for State Department Reforms.

Suggestions for Further Research

“The Proconsuls: America's Soldier-Diplomats,” a three-part series of Washington Post articles. (1), (2), (3).

The National Security Council: Jackson Subcommittee Papers on Policy-Making at the Presidential Level. Senator Henry M. Jackson, ed. New York, N.Y.: Praeger, 1965.

Politics among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace. Hans J. Morgenthau. New York: Knopf, 1972.

Command Decision and the Presidency: A Study of National Security Policy and Organization. R. Gordon Hoxie. New York, N.Y.: Reader’s Digest Press, 1977.

National Security Policy Formulation: Institutions, Processes, and Issues. James H. Dixon. Lanham, Md.: University of America Press, 1984.

Running the World: The Inside Story of the National Security Council and the Architects of American Power. David Rothkopf. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.

A New Structure for National Security Policy Planning. Stephen A. Cambone. Washington, D.C.: The CSIS Press, 1998.

The Mission: Waging War and Keeping Peace with America’s Military. Dana Priest. New York: W. W. Norton, 2003.

Waging Ancient War: The Limits of Preemptive Force. D. Robert Worley. Carlisle, Penn.: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2003.

Fateful Decisions: Inside the National Security Council. Karl F. Inderfurth and Loch K. Johnson. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

The Pentagon and the Presidency: Civil-Military Relations from FDR to George W. Bush. Dale R. Herspring. Lawrence, Kans.: University Press of Kansas, 2005.

The Law of Armed Conflict: Constraints on the Contemporary Use of Military Force. Howard M. Hensel, ed. Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate, 2005.

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