Methods of Social Inquiry
The Johns Hopkins University Institute of
Most word processors will give you a great deal of
help if you follow some simple steps. That's the reason for this page. Both
Word and WordPerfect will automatically build tables of contents, figures, and
tables, and will automatically build footnotes or end notes. They will also
provide you with some other very useful tools, again, just for following the
same simple rules. These features are useful for writing a 20 page term paper,
but are indispensable for writing something the size of a thesis.
Things to Try
- The following tools are most
useful for a large paper like your thesis, but still useful for something
the size of a term paper. Download the file indicated above, then open it with Word.
- It should come up with the
screen split vertically in a way you probably haven't seen before. You can
toggle this view on and off by clicking on [view/document map] in your
menu bar. The screen on the left is like a table of contents that allows
you to navigate quickly through a 100 page document rather than scrolling
- But how does it know to put
the headings in the document map? In the right window, put your cursor on
one of the headings (or any of the other paragraphs) and notice a small
window in the upper left corner of the Word menu bar. It might say Heading
1, Heading 2, Paragraph, or something else. These things are called
"styles." Most of you have created files where every paragraph
is "normal" style. You then applied bold face, centered it,
italicized it, or whatever. You have denied yourself the document map as
well as some other very useful tools.
- To create a paragraph of a
particular style, type it, then go to the style window's little down
arrow. It will give you lots of choices. Pick one, e.g., Heading 1. Any
paragraph with style Heading 1, Heading 2, or Heading 3 will show up in
the Document Map. It will also show up in the table of contents if you take
the following simple step.
- Position your cursor on the
existing table of contents. Click [insert/index and tables...] and the
table of contents tab. Then click OK. When it asks if you really want to
replace the existing TOC, click OK. A list of figures and list of tables can
be automatically generated similarly: [insert/index and tables ...] and
the figures tab.
- But what if you can't stand
the formatting I've provided for Heading 1? You can easily change the
formatting. Move your cursor to a paragraph of the style you don't like. Click
[format/style/modify]. Follow the instructions to change the font (point
size, font, italics, bold, ...) or to change paragraph features (centered,
justified, double spaced, indents, space before or after, page break
before, ...). Every paragraph of this style will automatically be updated.
This can save you a lot of time. You can set the "paragraph"
style to single space to save on printing resources. When you're ready to
turn in your final paper, change "paragraph" to double space and
- What happens when I've
written 125 pages and my thesis organization collapses under the weight? You
can always cut and paste. But there's a much better way. Click
[view/master document]. You can go back to the WYSIWYG view by clicking
[view/page layout]. If your machine is real slow, you will find
[view/normal] to be much faster but not quite as WYSIWYG.
- First notice numbers
from 1 to 7 in the menu bar. Click them to see what happens. You can show
just level one headings or levels 1 through 3. Or
you can show them all.
- Notice also the arrows
in the menu. A left arrow means promote the paragraph up one in the
hierarchy, i.e., from Heading N to Heading N-1. The right arrow demotes N
to N+1. The up and down arrows move the highlighted paragraph up or down
- By clicking on a plus
sign, you select everything under that paragraph. E.g., by selecting a
Heading 1 paragraph, you select the entire chapter: everything up to the
next level 1 heading. You can move the entire chapter by dragging only
the level one heading. You can move a section from within a chapter to
precede the chapter, then promote it to be a chapter by itself with a
click of the promote key.
- By double clicking on
a plus sign, you can toggle back and forth between seeing what's under
the clicked heading or not.
- Now go back to the
page layout view to see the results of your efforts.
- All of these tools and more
are available just by using styles. Most folks resist this step, but are
glad they did within a week or so.
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