National Security

Required and Optional Reading

There are both required and optional reading listed below. The class schedule specifies which of the following material is required reading and specifies the date the reading assignment is due. Questions are drawn exclusively from required reading. Much of the optional material is here for those of you pursuing a thesis topic in this area.

Required Text

Much of the assigned reading is from a book—Orchestrating the Instruments of Power: A Critical Examination of the U.S. National Security System—written for this course. Because traditional publishers introduce horrible delays and add very little if anything to the process, I’ve packaged the current version and made it available under a different name—Aligning Ends, Ways, and Means: An Examination of the U.S. National Security System—under my name is available from

Optional Text

A second book—National Security for a New Era—is entirely optional. The author, Donald Snow, has been around a long time, is mainstream, and is very credible. I offer his book so that you’re not captive of my work.

National Security for a New Era: Globalization and Geopolitics after Iraq, 3rd ed. Donald M. Snow. New York: Pearson Longman, 2008.

Block I: Foundational Concepts and Principles

The Treaty of Westphalia (1648).

David Hume’s Of Balance of Power (1777).

The U.S. Constitution (1787).

Immanuel Kant’s Perpetual Peace (1795).

Block II: National Security Strategy

Kennan’s Long Telegram.

Kennan’s X article: “The Sources of Soviet Conduct,” Foreign Affairs (July 1947).

“Competing Visions for U.S. Grand Strategy,” Barry R. Posen and Andrew L. Ross, International Security 21, no. 3 (winter 1996-1997): 5-53.

“Campaign 2000: Promoting the National Interest.” Condoleezza Rice. Foreign Affairs 79, no. 1 (January/February 2000): 45-62.

“Tyrants Beware? Clinton Pledges Global Cob Role, But Aides Hedge,” Bob Davis. Wall Street Journal, August 6, 1999.

“Democratization and the Danger of War.” Edward D. Mansfield and Jack Snyder. International Security 20, no. 1 (summer 1995): 5-38.

National Security Strategies (read selectively)

Reagan NSS 1987.

Reagan NSS 1988.

Bush I NSS 1990.

Bush I NSS 1991.

Bush I NSS 1993.

Clinton NSS 1994.

Clinton NSS 1995.

Clinton NSS 1996.

Clinton NSS 1997.

Clinton NSS 1998.

Clinton NSS 1999.

Clinton NSS 2000.

Bush II NSS 2002.

Bush II NSS 2006.

Obama NSS 2010.

Block III: Organizations and Capacities

Department of Defense (DoD)

Department of State (DoS),,

Defense is from Mars, State is from Venus.

Department of Justice (DoJ)

Criminal Justice System (CJS)

Organization chart

Organization and mission statement

Department of the Treasury (DoT)

Terrorism and Financial Intelligence (TFI)

Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN)

US Agency for International Development (USAID)

US Information Agency (USIA), DoS Public Diplomacy (R)

Intelligence Community (IC)

Counterterrorism Community (CT), start with

House of Representatives, see and select Committees

Senate, see and select Committees tab

Block IV: Orchestrating the Instruments

Brzezinski, Zbigniew. “The NSC’s Midlife Crisis,” Foreign Policy (winter 1987-1988): 80-99.

Greenstein, Fred I. and Richard H. Immerman. “Effective National Security Advising: Recovering the Eisenhower Legacy,” Political Science Quarterly (autumn 2000): 333-345.

Hammond, Paul Y. “The National Security Council as a Device for Interdepartmental Coordination: An Interpretation and Appraisal,” American Political Science Review (December 1960): 899-910.

Schlesinger, Arthur, Jr. “Effective National Security Advising: A Dubious Precedent,” Political Science Quarterly (autumn 2000): 347-351.

Soures. “The Formulation of United States Policy Relating to the National Security,” American Political Science Review (June 1949).

National Security Council Organization Policy (read selectively)

§  Nixon 1969 NSDM-2.

§  Carter 1977 NSC-2.

§  Reagan 1982 NSDD-2.

§  Reagan 1987 NSDD-266.

§  Reagan 1987 NSDD-276.

§  Bush 1989 NSD-2.

§  Clinton 1993 PDD-2.

§  Bush 2001 NSPD-1.

§  Bush 2001 NSPD-1a.

§  Obama 2009 PDD-1, accompanying memo.

Organizing for “counterinsurgency”

§  Eisenhower’s Overseas Internal Security Program [not yet found]

§  JFK’s Overseas Internal Defense Policy 1962,

§  The releasing NSC document, NSAM-182,

§  DoS Summary of OIDP,

§  Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) Summary of OIDP.

Block V: Reform for the 21st Century

“The Proconsuls: America's Soldier-Diplomats,” a three-part series of Washington Post articles. (1), (2), (3).

Proposal for State Department Reforms.

Hart-Rudman Commission.

9/11 Commission.

Beyond Goldwater-Nichols.

Commission on the National Guard and Reserve. Executive Summary.

Project on National Security Reform.

Suggestions for Further Research

Cambone, Stephen A. A New Structure for National Security Policy Planning. Washington, D.C.: The CSIS Press, 1998.

Dixon, James H. National Security Policy Formulation: Institutions, Processes, and Issues. Lanham, Md.: University of America Press, 1984.

Hensel, Howard M. ed. The Law of Armed Conflict: Constraints on the Contemporary Use of Military Force. Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate, 2005.

Herspring, Dale R. The Pentagon and the Presidency: Civil-Military Relations from FDR to George W. Bush. Lawrence, Kans.: University Press of Kansas, 2005.

Hoxie, R. Gordon. Command Decision and the Presidency: A Study of National Security Policy and Organization. New York: Reader’s Digest Press, 1977.

Inderfurth, Karl F. and Loch K. Johnson. Fateful Decisions: Inside the National Security Council. Karl F. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Jackson, Henry M. ed. The National Security Council: Jackson Subcommittee Papers on Policy-Making at the Presidential Level. New York: Praeger, 1965.

Morgenthau, Hans J. Politics among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace. New York: Knopf, 1972.

Priest, Dana. The Mission: Waging War and Keeping Peace with America’s Military. New York: W. W. Norton, 2003.

Rothkopf, David. Running the World: The Inside Story of the National Security Council and the Architects of American Power. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.

Worley, D. Robert. Waging Ancient War: The Limits of Preemptive Force. Carlisle, Penn.: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2003.

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